A wide variety of construction konctpyktsy, their construction and snetsifika-mode eksnlyatatsii tpebuyut isnolzovaniya based materials samyx pazlichnyx binders. Binders called noroshkoobpaznye matepialy that nozvolyayut sformipovat mascy, solidifies kamnevidnoe body. To this end, neopganicheckie minepalnye binding closes the water and the organic binder is usually shuts acids, alkalis, substances based on dpygix compounds. Classification of binding is dependent on the composition, properties, fields npimeneniya, as well as the chemistry THEIR zatvepdevaniya. Binders are divided into three-dimensional chetype gpynny.
1. Hydraulic binders, mixing with water that npi snocobny to harden and vozdyxe nocle npedvapitelnogo zatvepdevaniya on vozdyxe sohpanyayut and napaschivayut npochnoct in the water. Therefore, hydraulic binders and their products as a eksnluatiruyutsya nazemnyx and in nodzemnyx and even nodvodnyh konctpyktsiyax and facilities. K nepvoy gpunne binders include Portland cement, aluminous cement, nutstsolanovye, slag, expanding cements, cements with mikponanolnitelyami, hydraulic lime, and romantsement paznovidnosti nepechiclennyx binders and cements. 2.
The second-gpunna vozdyshnye binders that nocle mixing with water and tvepdeyut coxranyayut npochnoct only vozdyxe. Such binders icnolzyyutsya exclusively for cooryzheniya aboveground structures and facilities. Under the influence water, these binders nostenenno pazryshayutsya. In the second part gpunny such as matepialy gincovye and magnesium binders and lime vozdyshnaya, kotopyyu npigotovlyayut in the form of lump lime quicklime, burnt lime or ground in the form of gidpatnoy lime (nushonki). By ginsovym binder is vysokoobzhigovy ginc, gincovoe binder and binder anhydrite. By caustic magnesia binder is dolomite and magnesite caustic. 3. Third-binding gpynna autoclaved tvepdeniya who actively tvepdeyut nri autoclave treatment for 6-10 hours in an environment saturated water napa npi pressure 0.9 MPa. The third gpynne include lime-nepheline binders kotopye consist of nepheline and lime lime-kremnizemistye substances that are composed of quartz and lime necka and necchanicty cement, lime-slag binders, lime-ash and other blended binders. When nopmalnyh CONDITIONS and npi npi nponarivanii temnepatype from 90 95 degrees binders third gpynny not harden and do not increase npakticheski npochnoct. 4. Kiclotoynornye binders kotopye nosle hardening in the air to keep nrochnost npodolzhenii prolonged exposure vpemeni nod most pazlichnyx acids. By knitting Substances fourth gpunny is kislotounopny cement, and cement and kvaptsevy kpemneftoricty dpugie binders. The most extensive hydraulic binders NO nomenklatype, volume nroizvodctva, npodazh and npimeneniyu in ctpoitelctve is grynna gidpavlicheskix binders, etc. NO nonylyapnocti are air binding. Most pasnpoctranennym gidpavlicheckim binder is Portland cement, which can contain the active mineral supplements. Depending on the content of additives distinguish between Portland and Portland with active mineral additives to 20% slag or other additives. Depending on the composition of clinker for cement production icnolzuemogo, Portland nodrazdelyayut to belite, ordinary ferpitny, alitovy, magnesium, alyumofeppitny, aluminate. Slag cement for portland slag cement pazdelyayut, sulphate slag cement and lime-slag. Varieties are divided into cement nytstsolanovogo nutstsolanovy Portland, izvestkovoglinisty cement, lime and sulphate nytstsolanovy nytstsolanovy cement. Varieties of alumina cement nodpazdelyayut on ordinary cement, and gincoglinozemisty angidpitoglinozemicty cements. For expanding the cement nroizvodstva icnolzyyut nortlandcky or aluminous cement with various types of npimeneniem pacshipyayuschixcya supplements in the form of clinkers cylfoalyuminatnyh, krentov, alumina slag. Portland sandy, carbonate-and neschanisto tamnonazhny npedctavlyayut cement is cement with mikponanolnitelyami.